Schawlow, Arthur Leonard

Schawlow, Arthur Leonard
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b. 5 May 1921 Mount Vernon, New York, USA
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American physicist involved in laser-spectroscopy research.
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When Arthur L.Schawlow was 3 years old his family moved to Canada: it was in Toronto that he received his education, graduating from the University of Toronto with a BA in physics in 1941. He was awarded an MA in 1942, taught classes for military personnel at the University until 1944 and worked for a year on radar equipment. He returned to the University of Toronto in 1945 to carry out research on optical spectroscopy and received his PhD in 1949. From 1949 to 1951 he held a postgraduate fellowship at Columbia University, where he worked with Charles H. Townes on microwave spectroscopy. From 1951 to 1961 he was a research physicist at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, working mainly on superconductivity, but he maintained his association with Townes, who had pioneered the maser (an acronym of microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). In a paper published in Physical Review in December 1958, Townes and Schawlow suggested the possibility of a development into optical frequencies or an optical maser, later known as a laser (an acronym of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). In 1960 the first such device was made by Theodore H. Maiman. In 1960 Schawlow returned to Columbia University as a visiting professor and in the following year was appointed Professor of Physics at Stanford University, where he continued his researches in laser spectroscopy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
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Principal Honours and Distinctions
Nobel Prize for Physics 1981. Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Medal 1962. Institute of Physics of London Thomas Young Medal and Prize 1963. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Morris N.Liebmann Memorial Prize 1964. Optical Society of America Frederick Ives Medal 1976. Honorary degrees from the State University of Ghent, the University of Bradford and the University of Toronto.
Bibliography
Schawlow is the author of many scientific papers and, with Charles H.Townes, of
Microwave Spectroscopy (1955).
Further Reading
T.Wasson (ed.), 1987, Nobel Prize Winners, New York, pp. 930–3 (contains a short biography).
RTS

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

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  • Schawlow,Arthur Leonard — Schaw·low (shôʹlō), Arthur Leonard. 1921 1999. American physicist. He shared a 1981 Nobel Prize for developing technologies to study complex forms of matter. * * * …   Universalium

  • Schawlow , Arthur Leonard — (1921–) American physicist Born in Mount Vernon, New York, Schawlow was educated at the University of Toronto and worked at Columbia (1949–51) and at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (1951–61). He became professor of physics at Stanford University …   Scientists

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  • Schawlow, Arthur L. — ▪ 2000       American physicist (b. May 5, 1921, Mount Vernon, N.Y. d. April 28, 1999, Palo Alto, Calif.), shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn for work on laser spectroscopy. Originally… …   Universalium

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  • Arthur L. Schawlow — Arthur Leonard Schawlow Arthur Leonard Schawlow Arthur Leonard Schawlow (5 mai 1921 28 avril 1999) est un physicien américain prix Nobel de physique en 1981 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Physiknobelpreis 1981: Nicolaas Bloembergen — Arthur Leonard Schawlow — Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn —   Die Amerikaner Bloembergen und Schawlow wurden für ihren Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Laserspektroskopie, der Schwede Siegbahn für seinen Beitrag zur Entwicklung der hochauflösenden Elektronenspektroskopie ausgezeichnet.    Biografien   Nicolaas …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Arthur Schawlow — Artur Schawlow Arthur Leonard Schawlow (* 5. Mai 1921 in Mount Vernon, New York; † 28. April 1999 in Palo Alto/Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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